Lundi 22 Avril 2019  

N°124 - Quatrième trimestre 2018

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  S.E.M. / H.E. Wilfried Inotira Emvula

A Successfull Democratic Transition

Fifteen years after independence, Namibia has opened up a new chapter in its history with the election of President Hifikepunye Pohamba, sealing a successful democratic transition reflected by the wide ethnic diversity and economic boom in the capital Windhoek. H.E. Wilfried Inotira Emvula, the Ambassador of Namibia to France, describes the strides achieved by his country as it shows up development and raises its profile on the regional stage.



Fifteen years after independence, Namibia has opened up a new chapter in its history with the election of President Hifikepunye Pohamba, sealing a successful democratic transition reflected by the wide ethnic diversity and economic boom in the capital Windhoek. H.E. Wilfried Inotira Emvula, the Ambassador of Namibia to France, describes the strides achieved by his country as it shows up development and raises its profile on the regional stage.




Fifteen years after independence, Namibia has opened up a new chapter in its history with the election of President Hifikepunye Pohamba, sealing a successful democratic transition reflected by the wide ethnic diversity and economic boom in the capital Windhoek. H.E. Wilfried Inotira Emvula, the Ambassador of Namibia to France, describes the strides achieved by his country as it shows up development and raises its profile on the regional stage.



The Diplomatic Letter: Mr. Ambassador, Namibia opened a new chapter of its history with the election of President Hifikepunye Pohamba, who succeeded Mr. Sam Nujoma, the father of the independence. At the time when your country celebrated its 15th anniversary of its independence on 21 March 2005, how would you describe the transformations that Namibia accomplished since then? What are the priorities that President Hifikepunye Pohamba has fixed in the heart of his programme of action?


H.E. Wilfried Inotira Emvula: The gains of independence have transformed every facet of our society. The social fabric of our nation has been fundamentally changed for the better. Today, our citizens enjoy freedoms and rights that they were denied by the apartheid regime. Equally important, the signs of socio-economic development and progress are visible in all parts of the country. Our country is now on a steady path towards a brighter future, a path that we have embarked upon with optimism and confidence.

The transition of presidential power from the Founding President, Comrade Sam Nujoma, to His Excellency President Hifikepunye Pohamba was smooth because, from day one of our independence, we have committed   ourselves to uphold the rule of law and live by a democratic constitution, which was adopted unanimously by all political parties. This laid a solid foundation for a democratic and peaceful society we have continued to build on over the last fifteen years.

After all, the rationale and motivation for our struggle was the achievement of the rule of law, democracy and social justice. Therefore, it is not surprising that the change of leadership at the highest level went smoothly in accordance with the aspirations of the Namibian people.   This process has proven beyond reasonable doubt that democracy and good governance have been entrenched in Namibia, not only as a system of government, but as a way of life.

With regard to President Pohamba’s focus, I would like to say that the President will work to implement the programmes and policies articulated by the ruling SWAPO Party. Of note, some of the priority areas in terms of policy action are the National Development Plans (NDPs), the 2004 SWAPO Party Election Manifesto and Vision 2030. All these policies are aimed at promoting sustained economic growth and addressing unemployment, particularly among the youth and women.

Moreover, there is a strong emphasis on fighting the HIV/Aids pandemic and the provision of social amenities such as education, health care, safe drinking water, better housing, electricity as well as expansion of physical and communications infrastructure to oil the wheels that drives our economy. I should also add that Land Reform and local production of food through the strengthening of the agricultural sector, will continue to enjoy priority attention of the government.


T.D.L.: With the GDP growth rate above 4% in 2004, the Namibian economy draws its force from the mining sector as well as fishing, which is in full expansion. In the image of ambitious projects in the energy sector, what are the other areas of activities that Namibian authorities are looking forward to develop?


H.E. W.I.E.: There are various areas of economic activities that Namibia is looking forward to develop and particularly those, which could lead to the value addition of our natural resources and provide employment to our people. Towards this end we are inviting investors to engage in any manufacturing and processesing of any resources of their choice and locate anywhere in the country. The country has a wide range of minerals and a number of other raw materials, with investment opportunities that are still to be explored in the following area:

– cutting and polishing of precious stones, including diamonds

– jewellery, made of silver, gold, other precious and semi precious stones

– cutting and polishing of marbles and granite

– various products made from sodalite and other dimension stone

– leather and leather goods

– glass products

– woolen products (carpets and knitwear)

– rippling, spinning and weaving of cotton (cotton ginnery in particular)

– manufacturing of textile and garments

– pharmaceutical products

– domestic appliance

– tourism

Namibia is also aiming at becoming a regional centre for the development of information and communication technologies in order to meet the growing demand of emerging markets in Africa and further a-field. In this context, potential sectors that are open for investment include:

– batch and real time data processing,

– all computer assisted tasks such as CAD (Computer Assisted Design),

– hosting of data bases and web sites

– Internet call centres.

We have been trying to attract French investors and we hope they will be convinced and will come in by a larger number to invest in our country.


L.L.D. : More globally, could you explain to us the broadlines of NDP2, the new Namibian Economic Development Program?


H.E. W.I.E.: The Second National Development Plan (NDP2) is part of a longer-term development perspective plan for Namibia – Vision 2030.   The overall aim of Vision 2030 is to transform Namibia from a developing, lower middle income to a developed, high-income country by the year 2030.   NDP2 policies are therefore geared to achieve the medium-term objectives of that vision. NDP2 is the first medium-term strategy for implementing some of the aims of Vision 2030.   The Plan’s medium term objectives are to:

– Revive and sustain economic growth;

– Create more employment opportunities;

– Reduce inequalities in income distribution;

– Reduce poverty;

– Reduce internal development inequalities;

– Promote gender equality and equity and

– Promote economic empowerment.

Provision of the above NDP2 national objectives does not, in any way, mean that other equally important objectives are discarded.   To the contrary, the Government and the people of Namibia remain committed to other objectives of national status.

The Government has consistently identified and supported priority areas such as:

– Education and Training;

– Health and Social Services;

– Housing;

– Provision of water;

– Agriculture;

– Manufacturing;

– Fisheries etc.

These areas and others not mentioned above continue to be accorded top priority status and strongly supported through the allocation of human and financial resources. The Government and other stakeholders, will continue working together to support and execute development strategies through well conceived programmes and projects. The NDP2 strategies therefore consist of:

– Sustainable provision and strengthening of an enabling environment for economic growth and development;

– Promoting environmental and ecological sustainability;

– Promoting, expanding and strengthening participatory development and equity;

– Promoting, strengthening and sustaining good governance and democracy;

– Expanding and strengthening Namibia’s international role.


T.D.L.: Despite the relatively good macro economic situation, Namibia still has to count on a high unemployment rate and increasing public budget deficit. What are the initiatives that are to be undertaken in view of job creations and reduction of social inequalities while at the same time taking into account budgetary constraints? The day when President Hifikepunye Pohamba took oath he put emphasis on the importance of the struggle against the propagation of HIV Aids virus, what are the measures that are taken in the areas of prevention and treatment?


H.E. W.I.E.: As I have already explained earlier on, we are concerned about a high unemployment rate that our country is facing but also social inequalities. We are trying to solve the unemployment problem by encouraging local and foreign investments in various areas of our economy and most particularly in those sectors, which could allow value addition of our natural resources and in the process create jobs for our people. Apart from the manufacturing sector, we are also looking into the development of the tourism sector as a means of job creation. We are putting a lot of emphasis on education and training in general in order to have skilled manpower and be able to satisfy the needs of labour markets. In this endeavour, the challenge before us is to search for appropriate technologies to our country, identify and attract appropriate partners in order to reach our goal. Our government has been taking concrete measures to conduct economic reforms and deploys a lot of efforts to reduce social inequalities and assure an acceptable and decent standard of living to all Namibians. Our efforts to stimulate economic growth include encouraging further domestic and foreign investment, improving productivity and innovation, enhancing technological development, developing quality human resources as well as accelerating the transition to a knowledge based economy. Our efforts to develop new sources of growth and tapping into new markets, will help to diversify the economy which in turn will strengthen macroeconomic dynamism. With regards to the struggle against HIV / AIDS, Namibia has adopted a National Programme, which is set to address the threat of the pandemic on our people. As a result and according to a recent report of the UN Secretary General, Namibia, together with other two African countries where more than 25 percent of people eligible to receive anti-retroviral treatment have access to it. In our case, we only started the process in August 2003 after the training of personnel and a proper identification of hospitals and clinics where such services will be available.


T.D.L.: As one of the consequences of the apartheid regime imposed on Namibian people during the time of South African colonisation, more than half of the arable lands are still to date in the hands of white farmers. How is the land question going to be resolved without provoking violence like it was in the case of your neighbouring country, Zimbabwe? More broadly, what are the particularities of the Namibian national reconciliation policy?


H.E. W.I.E.: The fundamental principles underlying Namibia’s liberation struggle were based on access, ownership, and economic benefits derived from natural resources; and land was the most important. Land forms the basis for existence and survival for the great majority of Namibians. Unfortunately, the past German colonial policies and subsequent apartheid South African policies left a legacy of unequal distribution of access and ownership to land, as a major means of production. Today, between 60% and 70% of Namibia’s population is engaged in subsistence agro-pastoralism on state-owned communal land, making up 41% of the country’s total land area. By contrast, less than 10% of the people live and work on freehold farmland, which constitutes approximately 44% of the total land area. Such inequalities in access to, and ownership of land are not compatible with sustainable development and also carry considerable conflict potential.

Namibia, unlike most African countries, has land that has marginal capabilities due to water scarcity, variability of grazing, low and variable livestock carrying capacity. These environmental constraints severely limit rain-fed agriculture.

These historical deprivations of the Namibian people, compounded by environmental factors, are some of the factors that compelled the SWAPO government, to make land reform one of the priority areas that needed to be addressed. Upon achieving political independence, the Government of the Republic of Namibia established the Ministry of Lands and Resettlement as the main custodian and transmission belt for policies and programmes of the government on land reform and the land question.

The Government also realized that for any land reform to be economically and socially successful, it should address the ownership and usage thereof. This led to a broad-based national debate that culminated into a National Land Conference that was held in June-July 1991. At the end of this successful Conference, general consensus emerged on addressing the three principle areas of great concern, namely; correcting the wrongs perpetrated by colonial dispossession, working towards achieving equity, and developing pragmatic policies to increase efficiency in the utilization of the land.

The Conference was also aimed at resolving Namibia’s land question in a spirit of national reconciliation, proper consultation and social reconstruction. The Namibian Policy of National Reconciliation, adopted at independence in 1990, makes it a requirement and a need to redress and correct historical inequalities and injustices in terms of access to land and other basic factors of production. It is in the spirit of national reconciliation that a holistic approach was adopted to address the questions of colonial dispossession, equity in land ownership, distribution and efficiency in the utilization of land as a natural resource.

On the basis of the 1991 Land Conference Resolutions, the Ministry of Lands and Resettlement managed to develop policies and legislations to direct the land reform programme. The Agricultural (Commercial) Land Reform Act, No. 6 of 1995, was enacted, among others, to give the State the right to purchase commercial land through the willing seller willing buyer principle, and distribute it (land) to the previously disadvantaged Namibians. In 1998, the National Assembly passed the National Land Policy as a guideline for implementing land reform. The National Resettlement Policy is also in place to guide the resettlement process. In 2002 the Communal Land Reform Act was also enacted to guide the administration and allocation of land in communal areas by the traditional authorities.

These and other pieces of legislation are indicators that the Government of the Republic of Namibia has a clear direction as to how the land reform should be handled to avoid chaos and disruptive situations to happen in the country.

The process of land reform is conducted in a transparent, consultative and participatory manner. For example, the Land Reform Advisory Commission was constituted as a legal requirement mainly to advise the Minister of Lands and Resettlement on matters related to land reform and resettlement. The Commission is composed of different people drawn from different institutions such as the Namibia Agricultural Union (NAU), the Namibia National Farmers Union (NNFU), and by virtue of their wide experience and varying expertise.

The Lands Tribunal is also in place to serve as an arbitrator in cases where a disagreement arises on the value or price of a farm/property being considered for acquisition by the State.

The main objective of land reform in Namibia is to achieve an acceptable redistribution of land, improvement of material conditions of the poor peasants, the farm labourers and alleviating the plight of the landless Namibians. Since the land reform programme started the Government, through the Ministry of Lands, has acquired 143 farms in commercial areas. In our endeavour to demonstrate commitment to the land reform and resettlement programme, the Government makes a budgetary provision of N$ 20 million annually (since 1995) for land acquisition in commercial areas. This amount has now been increased to N$50 million every year, starting 2003.

Land reform has a component of resettlement; a voluntary movement of an individual or family from a place or area which has poor socio-economic conditions, to an area designated by the government, where land and other socio-economic and life-supporting amenities can be provided. Through resettlement land is distributed and made accessible to the previously landless citizens, thereby, enabling them to derive a livelihood and improve the quality and standard of their lives.

In view of the fact that land ownership is still unequally distributed, despite the willing seller willing buyer approach, the Government tasked the Ministry of Lands to introduce a land tax on all commercial farm land.   Monies collected from land tax will be deposited into the Land Acquisition and Development Fund to further support the land reform programme. The (2005) collection of land tax started early this year logistical after all the arrangements were put in place. The idea of taxing commercial landowners is to make the land reform, as a develop-mental programme, more sustainable in future. The introduction of land tax will also encourage those multiple farmland owners to sell some of their farms to the State, willingly.

Apart from acquiring land through willing seller willing buyer, a process that many regard as slow and ineffective, the Government has instructed the Ministry of Lands to put mechanisms in place for expropriation of land in the best interest of the State. This process is underway and it will be done within the provisions of the constitution of the Republic of Namibia and the existing Agricultural (Commercial) Land Reform Act of 1995. The implementation of this provision is carefully sought with proper and participatory consultation. In accordance with the law, and in the spirit of national reconciliation and nation building, expropriation of farmland will be done with fair compensation. It is believed that this is a strategy that will help to improve and contribute positively towards a solution to resolve the land question in Namibia without provoking any form of violence.

It is our hope, as Government, that land reform and resettlement programme continues to be implemented and supported in a spirit of national reconciliation and affirmative action in order to achieve socio-economic development and political stability in the country as well as the entire SADC region. As the process has proved to be costly, Government has also appealed to the International community and Cooperating partners, to support it in any areas of need.


T.D.L.: Active member of Southern African countries’ economic integration process in the framework of Southern African Development Community (SADC), Namibia multiplies notably intra-regional transport projects. With an important opening towards Atlantic Ocean, in which manner does your country aspire to assert its position as a gateway for the landlocked countries in the region? On the opposite, what are the means that could be put into place to enhance the position of your country as an entry point into this market, notably in the prospect of creating a free exchange zone in the framework of the SADC? 25 years after its creation, how are you defining the role of this regional organisation in the development of your country in the post colonial era?


H.E. W.I.E.: Since its accession to nationhood in 1990 Namibia has been a very active member of the Southern African countries’ economic integration process in the framework of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). In this context, Namibia has taken a number of measures in the prospect of developing intra-regional transport projects. Its strategic geographical position with an important opening towards the Atlantic Ocean that naturally provide Namibia with immense potential to be the gateway to the SADC market. It particularly makes it a time and cost effective trade and transportation hub. The Namibian Government has been working hard to put in place and improve the necessary road and rail network connections to neighbouring countries to facilitate cost and time efficient transport mechanisms. The Trans-Kalahari Highway links the Walvis Bay port with the southern and eastern neighbouring countries. The Trans-Caprivi Highway provides access to the northern and northeastern neighbouring countries. Both highways are already serving as trade avenues. They are further reinforced by the construction of a bridge linking on the northeastern borders of Namibia with Zambia, to facilitate traffic across the Zambezi River. The railway network, which used to go only up to Tsumeb, a town located 426 kilometres north of Windhoek is now being extended to Oshikango, which is situated at the Namibia/Angola border. Other facilities such as handling, storage and servicing at the Walvis Bay port are continuously being improved to ensure fast, efficient and safe transportation of goods to and from the region. To keep abreast with the rest of SADC Member States and in its efforts to increase foreign investment flows to the country; Namibia is currently in the process of reviewing its incentive regimes. The Export Processing Zone (EPZ) regime still remains the core incentive in attracting foreign direct investment to Namibia. To date, 32 companies are fully operational under this regime and have invested more than N$5.5 billion, with over 10,000 direct job opportunities. Among the wide range of international companies that have located in Namibia under the EPZ regime are textile and garment and plastic producers, leather and marble processors, automotive component producers, household bathroom ware accessories, a zinc refinery and numerous diamond cutting and polishing enterprises.


T.D.L.: Following the official visit of President Hifikepunye Pohamba last April, your country and Angola started working together in reinforcing their economic cooperation. How are you qualifying the potentiality of this cooperation? In your views, is this orientation motivated by the will of diversifying Namibia’s economic partners? The establishment of customs union between Namibia and South Africa does it consecrate the pre-eminence of South Africa as your economic partner? In which other areas does President Hifikepunye Pohamba count deepening (reinforcing) the cooperation between the two countries?


H.E. W.I.E.: The roles of bilateral relations form an integral part of our policy of economic diplomacy. In the same vein, the Namibian Government is committed to the goal of re-enforcing, strengthening and expanding excellent relations that exist between Namibia and her neighbours. Namibia and Angola have a long contiguous border, thus it makes sense to promote greater commercial ties between the two sister countries. For Namibia, Angola is an important market with immense potential for both short and long term trade links. It is in this sprit that co-operation and trade are being enhanced for the mutual benefit of both countries.

I should also add that efforts to expand trade links between Namibia and Angola for instance, or any other country, are being pursued neither to the detriment or at the expense of South Africa nor at the expense of any other of our trade partners. That would be a contradiction. Rather, these efforts must be viewed as part of our drive to realise the objectives of our policy on économique diplomacy in the promoting of our national interests.

In the larger scheme of things, Namibia’s efforts are aimed at bringing closer the objectives of regional economic integration through SADC. This is based on the belief that enhanced trade and commercial ties between member states bring us closer towards regional economic integration and eventually towards continental economic harmonisation in line with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).


T.D.L.: Four years after the retreat of Namibian troops from Democratic Republic of Congo, how do you perceive the equilibrium, yet still fragile, in the Great Lakes region? In a more general point of view, what is your vision/opinion on the difficulties of getting a New Economic Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) functioning, despite of the progress made by African Union (AU)?


H.E. W.I.E.: Namibia, being a member of the United Nations, continues to participate in the United Nations’peacekeep-ing missions, as part of its contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security, as enshrined in the United Nations Charter. Namibia believes that intervention by force at the continental level should be done through and under the authority of the African Union or through sub-regional organizations acting in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Charter.

It is with that in mind that Namibia became one of the first and only three countries that coordinated under SADC, to send troops to the DRC, to avoid a threatening situation. After the withdrawal of its troops, replaced by MONUC, the situation has improved.   Although the situation is still one of a concern, the leadership has put up an interim government, which would deal with the drafting of a constitution and prepare for elections.   Although there are some delays, it is our hope that the problems in the DRC will be resolved, to secure peace in the Great Lakes Region.

NEPAD, as recovery development plan for Africa, may overcome some of its difficulties encountered today, once the African people starts benefiting from its programmes. While recognizing that NEPAD calls for a new partnership between Africa and the international community, especially the highly industrialized countries, for it to succeed, Africans should have ownership of the programme.


T.D.L.: First financial sponsor of your country, Germany acknowledged/recognised in 2004 the massacres that it has committed to the Herero ethnic group during the colonial period. How do you perceive the Hereros demands for reparations? How would you define the Germany – Namibian relationships today? More broadly, what are your expectations with regard to the European policy in the field of development aid?


H.E. W.I.E.: In 1989 the German “Bundestag” passed a resolution, which outlines the concept of “special relations” between Germany and Namibia. Political and diplomatic relations between Namibia and Germany are constructive and improving, especially when taking into account the wide spectrum of links and areas of co-operation which presently exist between the two countries. Namibia recognizes with appreciation the increased Africa interest of the German government while being – at the same time – well aware of the financial difficulties that the country is facing.

Germany is eager to see a consolidation of relations between the EU and SADC, and between the EU and the African Union. Germany is also motivated to see initiatives such as NEPAD becoming a success story in strengthening African capabilities for the prevention and management of armed conflicts and, the development of peacekeeping measures within the African Union.

Roughly 33% of German overall development aid is allocated to Africa. Namibia continues to be considered as a “priority partner country”.

The Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development recently announced that in terms of their financial planning for the next fiscal year, they propose to double the amount of money that Germany makes available to Namibia at present, from 12 million Euro to 24 million Euro per year.

In addition, Ms Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, German Minister of Economic and Development Cooperation, after attending the 100th Commemoration Ceremony of the Herero genocide which took place at Okakarara in August 2004, initiated the German-Namibian Initiative for Reconciliation and Development. This initiative includes specific projects for communities which were affected by the colonial wars – Herero, Nama and Damara – and will run for more or less 10 years. These projects should reach the people on the ground. The funds, 20 million Euro (2 million a year for a 10 year period), for such projects will be given in addition to the Development Cooperation by the German Government.

The Government of Namibia emphasized that all development cooperation monies and their utilization be decided upon within the context of German – Namibian bilateral government negotiations.

Namibia still faces critical challenges including the fact that 37% of Namibians live in extreme poverty. The HIV/AIDS Pandemic is hitting the young and most productive Namibians and it is estimated that 19% of our population are affected by the disease (2004). Furthermore 10 Billion N$ is required to meet the development objectives and programmes’ funding needs over the remaining period of NDP2 i.e. for 2004/2005 to 2005/2006. The total funding requirement for the whole NDP2 is N$ 17.9 Billion.

While trade and investment are powerful growth factors and the undertaking to promote trade rather than aid, development aid especially from the European Union, will continue to be a necessary tool to harness African efforts.


T.D.L: With the strong support of France in the independence struggle of Namibia, the two countries have developed relatively very close relationship. Although, the economic relations between France and Namibia still remain modest, what are the economic sectors in your country that could attract French companies?


H.E. W.I.E.: The Namibian economy is anchored on five priority sectors that are central to the country’s developmental goals. These are agriculture, mining, fisheries, manufacturing and tourism. Since independence in 1990, the Namibian Government has rendered special attention to value addition in all economic sectors in an effort to strengthen the manufacturing and industrial base of the country for maximum economic benefits. Our Trade Office and our Mission in Paris in general have been working hard to create awareness among the French business community on the advantages and incentives accorded by our country to local and foreign investors. The task has not been very easy most probably because of historical and cultural background. We have realised that for historical and cultural reasons the French business people would easily look at the French speaking countries for their investments than elsewhere. We are very optimistic with the prospects for the future economic cooperation between our two countries. Since the launching of our Trade Office three years ago, we have received many business enquiries and registered a number of investment interests in different sectors. We have also facilitated the task of a number of French investors in the process of establishing their business in Namibia. Yes, indeed we would like to see more French investors coming to our country and diversify their investments to other sectors than in the tourism only. The following are some main areas of focus that the French Investors might look at for their investments.

In the area of agriculture, the Green Scheme Programme has great potential to contribute to economic growth of the agricultural sector of the economy and create employment. It could also offer great opportunities for high value crops for the local market and possibly for exports. A link between agricultural production and industrial development should be put in place. For example, productions such as cotton, grapes and millet should be processed before exported in order to add value to the products in order to create employment.

On mining the Copper-Corridor, an initiative between Ongopolo and their counter parts in Zamibia and the DRC, mining seems to offer some good potential. If things go according to plan more copper from these countries could be processed at Tsumeb in Namibia and eventually a copper refinery and manufacturing plant could be established in.   Government could enter into negotiations with parties involved to facilitate the speed of putting up a manufacturing plant, in order to produce copper products such as cables.

The marine fishing sector is an important foreign exchange earner and significant employment generator for Namibia.   Government is keen and in the process to develop aquaculture, which has an immense potential to address poverty improve food security and create employment opportunities.

The manufacturing sector has a potential for adding value to the abundant Namibian natural resources and make valuable contributions to the GDP through exports of the value added products.   In order to develop the sector, Government could adopt a zero tolerance to the export of raw materials. Export tax could be levied on export of raw materials. This should however be thoroughly investigated and all stakeholders consulted and made aware of the opportunities and incentives available to add value to these products.  
  Textiles have the potential to be a viable industry in Namibia despite recent setbacks.   A strategy with milestones to be achieved could be put in place. For exemple, Farmers could be given specified time in which they will be able to provide raw materials to the Ginnery and the latter to provide produce to the factories. Farmers could be organized into cooperatives and credit could be facilitated from the Development Bank. Factories could put up a marketing strategy for products, of which exports will be the first option and local retails could be mobilized to buy these products. On the field of construction, Namibia is a young developing nation, which still requires the building of more houses and infrastructure for the growing population, hence the opportunities for further growth in the industry.
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